Search This Blog

Sunday, 29 April 2012

Wali Muhammad Wali (Wali Dakhani)

(Wali 'Deccani')
During the Mughal times Persian was the official language. It is said that Persian became lingua franca under Akbar for various political and social factors but mainly due to its non-sectarian and fluid nature. However, the armies, merchants, preachers, Sufis, and later the court, also incorporated the local language and the medieval Hindu literary language, Braj Bhasha. This new contact language soon incorporated other dialects, such as Haryanvi, Panjabi, and in the 17th century Khariboli, the dialect of the new capital at Delhi. By 1800, Khariboli had become dominant. The language went by several names over the years: Hindawi or Hindī, "[language] of India"; Dehlavi "of Delhi"; Hindustani, "of Hindustan"; and Zaban-e-Urdu, "the language of the [army] camp.
In 1653 when Prince Aurangzeb was appointed the viceroy of the Deccan for the second time, he made Fatehnagar his capital and renamed it Aurangabad ( a town in present day Maharashtra). Aurangzeb made  Aurangabad  his centre so that he could control the belligerent Deccan and  the Marathas. Augrangzeb ruled from Aurangabad for around 50 years. Aurangabad became a mini Delhi. This led to assimilation between the north and the south. Language also could not remain untouched.The language of Delhi got mixed with southern languages.
A resident of Aurangabad Wali Muhammad wali or Wali ‘Dakhani’, who was born in Aurangabad in 1667, was the first big poet of this language. Till then Ghazals were written only in Persian almost being replicated in thought and style from the original Persian masters like Saa'di, Jami and Khaqani. Wali began using not only an Indian language, but Indian themes, idioms and imagery in his ghazals. He was the first established poet to have composed Ghazal in the local language and have compiled a Divan. 

When Wali Mohammed Wali arrived in Delhi, around 1700 AD,  he established Hindustani with a light smattering of Persian words, a register called Rekhta, for poetry; previously the language of poetry had been Persian. Though the poets of Delhi were attempting to compose in Hindustani but were unable to find a distinct style. Wali provided them with one. His words had heavy southern influence yet it was very sweet and mellifluous. He used ‘tuman’ for ‘tumko’ (for you), ‘haman’ for ‘Hamko’ (for me), su.n , seti for se (from) and ku.n for ko .  It connected with the heart of denizens of delhi.
 His favorite theme was love – both mystical and earthy – and his characteristic tone was one of cheerful affirmation and acceptance, rather than of melancholy grumbling. He was the first Urdu poet to have started the practice of expressing love from the man's point of view, as against the prevailing convention of impersonating as a woman. If, on the one hand, Wali unravelled the beauty and richness of the native language as a poetic medium, on the other, he was alive to the vigour and verve of Persian diction and imagery which he successfully incorporated into the body of his verse. He may thus be called the architect of the modern poetic language, which is a skillful blend of Hindi and Persian vocabulary.

तुझ लब की सिफ़त लाल-ए-बदख्श़ाँ सूँ कहूँगा।
जादू है तेरे नैन ग़जाला सूँ कहूँगा।।
[ सिफ़त = characteristc/beauty,  लाल-ए-बदख्श़ाँ  = rubies from Badkhwashan (a province in afganishtan) ग़जाला = deer ]
Tujh lab kee sifat laal-e-badkhwasaan se kahoonga 
jaado hain tere nain ghazaala se kahoonga
To the rubies Of Badkhashaan  will I tell the beauty of your lips
to the Deers I'll tell the magic of your eyes

- - X - -

सजन तुम मुख सेती खोलो नक़ाब आहिस्ता आहिस्ता।
कि ज्यों गुल से निकसता है गुलाब आहिस्ता आहिस्ता।। 
Sajan tum much sitti ulto nikaab ahistah ahistaha
Ki jyun gul se nikasta hai gulaab ahista ahista

Dear, remove the veil from your face slowly slowly
as the rose comes out from the bud slowly slowly
अजब कुछ लुत्फ़ रखता है शब्-ए-खल्वत में गुल्रू से
खिताब अहिश्ता अहिश्ता ज़वाब अहिश्ता अहिश्ता 
 [lलुत्फ़=enjoyment/pleasure; शब्=night; खल्वत=solitude]
[गुल्रू=rosy faced; खिताब=to address; ज़वाब=reply]
Ajab kuch lutf rakhta hai shab-e-khalvat mein gulroon se
Khitaab ahistah ahista zawaab ahista ahista

 To the rose faced, in the night of solitude, Its a unique pleasure
to address slowly slowly, to respond slowly slowly

'वली' मुझ दिल में आता है ख्याल-ए-यार-ए-बेपरवाह
के ज्यों अंखियन में आता है ख्वाव अहिस्ता अहिस्ता

"Wali" mujh dil me.n aataa hai Khayaal-e-yaar-e-beparavaah
ke jiyo.n a.nkhiyan me.n aataa hai Khvaab aahistaa aahistaa

O 'Wali' The thought of my uncaring beloved thus visit my heart ,
 As a dream comes to my eyes slowly slowly
- - X - -

अजब नईं गर गुलां दौड़े पकड़ कर सूरत-ए-कुमरी
अदा सू जब चमन भीतर , वह सर्व-ए-सरफ़राज़ आवे
[ अजब = unexpected, नईं = not, गर = if; गुलां  = flowers; सूरत-ए-कुमरी = like nightingale, सर्व-ए-सरफ़राज़  = one with tall height]

Ajab nai  gar gulaan daude pakad kar surat-e-kumri
Adaa se jab chamsan bheetar, wah sarv-e-sarfaraaz aawe 

Its not unexpected if the flowers come running with the nightingale
when with all her charm, the tall beloved, comes in the garden
वली उस गौहर-ए-कान-ए-हया की क्या कहूं खूबी
मिरे घर इस तरह आता है ज्यूँ सीने में राज़ आवे
[ गौहर-ए-कान-ए-हया = the pearl from the treasure of shyness (the shy beloved)]
Wali uss gauhar-e-kaan-e-haya kee kyaa kahoon khoobi
Mire ghar iss tarah aata hai jyun seene mein raaz aawe
Wali, what do I tell you the suppleness of the shy beloved
she comes in my house as if a secret comes to my heart
- - X - - 
सफ़र-ए--इश्क का अगर है ख़याल
हिम्मत-ए-दिल को जाद-ए-राह करो
Safar-e-ishq ka agar hai khayaal
Himmat-e-dil ko jaad-e-raah karo

if you worry about the journey of love
then for the travel, better carry the streangth of heart
- - X - -
मेरी तरफ सागर बकफ आया है वह मस्त-ए-हया
ए दिल तकल्लुफ बर तरफ मस्ताना हो मस्ताना हो
[ सागर बकफ = wine in hands, मस्त-ए-हया = intoxicated in shyness, तकल्लुफ बर तरफ = keep aside formalities]

Meri taraf saagar bakaf aaya hai wah mast-e-haya
Aye dil takalluf bar tarf mastaana ho mastaana ho

With the wine in her hands, has come to me, intoxicated in shyness
O heart, keep aside your formalities, get intoxicated , get intoxicated
- - X - -
मेरा दिल क्यूँ  ना जावे उस गली में
गली उस दिलरुबा की दिलकुशा है
Mera dil kyun na jaawe us gali mein
Gali us dilruba kee dilkusha hai

Why shouldn't my heart go in that lane
The lane of my Dear is very attractive
- - X - - 
ज्यूँ गुल शिगाफ्तारू है सुखन के चमन में हम
ज्यूँ शमा सर्बलंद है हर अंजुमन में हम
[ शिगाफ्तारू = smiling face]
Jyun gul shiguftaru hai sukhan ke chaman mein hum
Jyun shama sarbaland hai har anzuman mein hum

I am the smiling flower in the garden of shayari
I am the  tall flame in all the gatherings
- - X - -  
मुफलिसी सब बहार खोती है
मर्द का ऐतबार खोती है
Muflisi sab bahar khoti hai
Mard ka aitbaar khoti hai

poverty looses all the pleasure
it looses the trust of a man
- - X -  -

Although Wali tried his hand at a variety of verse forms including the masnavi, qasida, mukhammas, and the rubai, the ghazal was his speciality. He wrote 473 ghazals containing 3,225 couplets (Ashaar). Wali died in Ahmedabad in 1707, and was buried in the same city. The path shown by Wali was followed by the later Shayars of Delhi, which reached its Zenith by 1750 in Meer*. 
* This article is precursor to 'Vignette of Meer Taqi 'Meer'

No comments: