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Sunday, 29 April 2012

Wali Muhammad Wali (Wali Dakhani)

(Wali 'Deccani')
During the Mughal times Persian was the official language. It is said that Persian became lingua franca under Akbar for various political and social factors but mainly due to its non-sectarian and fluid nature. However, the armies, merchants, preachers, Sufis, and later the court, also incorporated the local language and the medieval Hindu literary language, Braj Bhasha. This new contact language soon incorporated other dialects, such as Haryanvi, Panjabi, and in the 17th century Khariboli, the dialect of the new capital at Delhi. By 1800, Khariboli had become dominant. The language went by several names over the years: Hindawi or Hindī, "[language] of India"; Dehlavi "of Delhi"; Hindustani, "of Hindustan"; and Zaban-e-Urdu, "the language of the [army] camp.
In 1653 when Prince Aurangzeb was appointed the viceroy of the Deccan for the second time, he made Fatehnagar his capital and renamed it Aurangabad ( a town in present day Maharashtra). Aurangzeb made  Aurangabad  his centre so that he could control the belligerent Deccan and  the Marathas. Augrangzeb ruled from Aurangabad for around 50 years. Aurangabad became a mini Delhi. This led to assimilation between the north and the south. Language also could not remain untouched.The language of Delhi got mixed with southern languages.
A resident of Aurangabad Wali Muhammad wali or Wali ‘Dakhani’, who was born in Aurangabad in 1667, was the first big poet of this language. Till then Ghazals were written only in Persian almost being replicated in thought and style from the original Persian masters like Saa'di, Jami and Khaqani. Wali began using not only an Indian language, but Indian themes, idioms and imagery in his ghazals. He was the first established poet to have composed Ghazal in the local language and have compiled a Divan. 

When Wali Mohammed Wali arrived in Delhi, around 1700 AD,  he established Hindustani with a light smattering of Persian words, a register called Rekhta, for poetry; previously the language of poetry had been Persian. Though the poets of Delhi were attempting to compose in Hindustani but were unable to find a distinct style. Wali provided them with one. His words had heavy southern influence yet it was very sweet and mellifluous. He used ‘tuman’ for ‘tumko’ (for you), ‘haman’ for ‘Hamko’ (for me), su.n , seti for se (from) and ku.n for ko .  It connected with the heart of denizens of delhi.
 His favorite theme was love – both mystical and earthy – and his characteristic tone was one of cheerful affirmation and acceptance, rather than of melancholy grumbling. He was the first Urdu poet to have started the practice of expressing love from the man's point of view, as against the prevailing convention of impersonating as a woman. If, on the one hand, Wali unravelled the beauty and richness of the native language as a poetic medium, on the other, he was alive to the vigour and verve of Persian diction and imagery which he successfully incorporated into the body of his verse. He may thus be called the architect of the modern poetic language, which is a skillful blend of Hindi and Persian vocabulary.

तुझ लब की सिफ़त लाल-ए-बदख्श़ाँ सूँ कहूँगा।
जादू है तेरे नैन ग़जाला सूँ कहूँगा।।
[ सिफ़त = characteristc/beauty,  लाल-ए-बदख्श़ाँ  = rubies from Badkhwashan (a province in afganishtan) ग़जाला = deer ]
Tujh lab kee sifat laal-e-badkhwasaan se kahoonga 
jaado hain tere nain ghazaala se kahoonga
To the rubies Of Badkhashaan  will I tell the beauty of your lips
to the Deers I'll tell the magic of your eyes

- - X - -

सजन तुम मुख सेती खोलो नक़ाब आहिस्ता आहिस्ता।
कि ज्यों गुल से निकसता है गुलाब आहिस्ता आहिस्ता।। 
Sajan tum much sitti ulto nikaab ahistah ahistaha
Ki jyun gul se nikasta hai gulaab ahista ahista

Dear, remove the veil from your face slowly slowly
as the rose comes out from the bud slowly slowly
अजब कुछ लुत्फ़ रखता है शब्-ए-खल्वत में गुल्रू से
खिताब अहिश्ता अहिश्ता ज़वाब अहिश्ता अहिश्ता 
 [lलुत्फ़=enjoyment/pleasure; शब्=night; खल्वत=solitude]
[गुल्रू=rosy faced; खिताब=to address; ज़वाब=reply]
Ajab kuch lutf rakhta hai shab-e-khalvat mein gulroon se
Khitaab ahistah ahista zawaab ahista ahista

 To the rose faced, in the night of solitude, Its a unique pleasure
to address slowly slowly, to respond slowly slowly

'वली' मुझ दिल में आता है ख्याल-ए-यार-ए-बेपरवाह
के ज्यों अंखियन में आता है ख्वाव अहिस्ता अहिस्ता

"Wali" mujh dil me.n aataa hai Khayaal-e-yaar-e-beparavaah
ke jiyo.n a.nkhiyan me.n aataa hai Khvaab aahistaa aahistaa

O 'Wali' The thought of my uncaring beloved thus visit my heart ,
 As a dream comes to my eyes slowly slowly
- - X - -

अजब नईं गर गुलां दौड़े पकड़ कर सूरत-ए-कुमरी
अदा सू जब चमन भीतर , वह सर्व-ए-सरफ़राज़ आवे
[ अजब = unexpected, नईं = not, गर = if; गुलां  = flowers; सूरत-ए-कुमरी = like nightingale, सर्व-ए-सरफ़राज़  = one with tall height]

Ajab nai  gar gulaan daude pakad kar surat-e-kumri
Adaa se jab chamsan bheetar, wah sarv-e-sarfaraaz aawe 

Its not unexpected if the flowers come running with the nightingale
when with all her charm, the tall beloved, comes in the garden
वली उस गौहर-ए-कान-ए-हया की क्या कहूं खूबी
मिरे घर इस तरह आता है ज्यूँ सीने में राज़ आवे
[ गौहर-ए-कान-ए-हया = the pearl from the treasure of shyness (the shy beloved)]
Wali uss gauhar-e-kaan-e-haya kee kyaa kahoon khoobi
Mire ghar iss tarah aata hai jyun seene mein raaz aawe
Wali, what do I tell you the suppleness of the shy beloved
she comes in my house as if a secret comes to my heart
- - X - - 
सफ़र-ए--इश्क का अगर है ख़याल
हिम्मत-ए-दिल को जाद-ए-राह करो
Safar-e-ishq ka agar hai khayaal
Himmat-e-dil ko jaad-e-raah karo

if you worry about the journey of love
then for the travel, better carry the streangth of heart
- - X - -
मेरी तरफ सागर बकफ आया है वह मस्त-ए-हया
ए दिल तकल्लुफ बर तरफ मस्ताना हो मस्ताना हो
[ सागर बकफ = wine in hands, मस्त-ए-हया = intoxicated in shyness, तकल्लुफ बर तरफ = keep aside formalities]

Meri taraf saagar bakaf aaya hai wah mast-e-haya
Aye dil takalluf bar tarf mastaana ho mastaana ho

With the wine in her hands, has come to me, intoxicated in shyness
O heart, keep aside your formalities, get intoxicated , get intoxicated
- - X - -
मेरा दिल क्यूँ  ना जावे उस गली में
गली उस दिलरुबा की दिलकुशा है
Mera dil kyun na jaawe us gali mein
Gali us dilruba kee dilkusha hai

Why shouldn't my heart go in that lane
The lane of my Dear is very attractive
- - X - - 
ज्यूँ गुल शिगाफ्तारू है सुखन के चमन में हम
ज्यूँ शमा सर्बलंद है हर अंजुमन में हम
[ शिगाफ्तारू = smiling face]
Jyun gul shiguftaru hai sukhan ke chaman mein hum
Jyun shama sarbaland hai har anzuman mein hum

I am the smiling flower in the garden of shayari
I am the  tall flame in all the gatherings
- - X - -  
मुफलिसी सब बहार खोती है
मर्द का ऐतबार खोती है
Muflisi sab bahar khoti hai
Mard ka aitbaar khoti hai

poverty looses all the pleasure
it looses the trust of a man
- - X -  -

Although Wali tried his hand at a variety of verse forms including the masnavi, qasida, mukhammas, and the rubai, the ghazal was his speciality. He wrote 473 ghazals containing 3,225 couplets (Ashaar). Wali died in Ahmedabad in 1707, and was buried in the same city. The path shown by Wali was followed by the later Shayars of Delhi, which reached its Zenith by 1750 in Meer*. 
* This article is precursor to 'Vignette of Meer Taqi 'Meer'

Sunday, 22 April 2012

A Masnavi by Meer Taqi 'Meer'

Masnavi, or mathnawī, is the name of a poem written in rhyming couplets, or more specifically, “a poem based on independent, internally rhyming lines”. Most mathnawī followed a meter of eleven, or occasionally ten, syllables, but had no limit in their length. The mathnawi consists of an indefinite number of couplets, with the rhyme scheme aa/bb/cc. Mathnawī have been written in Persian, Arabic, Turkish, and Urdu cultures (From Wikipedia) 

खुशा हाल उसका जो मादूम है
की अह्वाल अपना तो मालूम है
[ खुशा हाल = happy,  मादूम = obliterated, अह्वाल = condition/state]

रही जान-ए-गमनाक को काहिशें
गयी दिल से नौमीद सी ख्वाइशें
[ जान-ए-गमनाक = unhappy soul, काहिशें = difficulties/sorrow, नौमीद  = without hope]

जमाने नें रखा मुझे  मुत्तसिल
परागन्द रोज़ी, परागन्द दिल
[मुत्तसिल = ever/always परागन्द रोज़ी = fianancial problem, परागन्द दिल = problem of heart ]

गयी कब परेशानी–ए-रोज़गार
रहा मैं तो हम ताले-ए-जुल्फ-ए-यार
[ परेशानी–ए-रोज़गार = problem of employment, ताले-ए-जुल्फ-ए-यार = locked in the tresses of beloved.]

ज़माने नें आवारा चाहा मुझे
मेरी बेकासी नें निबाहा मुझे

दिल इक बार, सो बेकरार-ए-बुतां
[बेकरार-ए-बुतां = desiring for beloved, गुबार-ए-सर-ए-रहगुज़ार-ए-बुतां = dust of the roads of beloved]

गिरफ्तार-ए-रंज-ओ-मुसीबत रहा
ग़रीब-ए-दायर-ए-मुहब्बत रहा
[गिरफ्तार-ए-रंज-ओ-मुसीबत = prisoner of sorrow and problems ; ग़रीब-ए-दायर-ए-मुहब्बत = poor from the land of love ]

चला अकबराबाद से जिस घड़ी
दर-ओ-बाम पर चस्म-ए-हसरत पड़ी
[ अकबराबाद = earlier name of Agra; दर-ओ-बाम = doors and terrace, चस्म-ए-हसरत = with sad eyes]

की तर्क-ए-वतन पहले क्यूँ कर करूँ
मगर हर कदम दिल को पत्थर करूँ
[ तर्क-ए-वतन = leaving the land]

पस अज कत-ए-रह, लाए दिल्ली में बख़्त
बहुत खेँचे याँ मैने, आज़ार सख़्त
[पस अज कत-ए-रह = after travelling the road,  बख़्त = fortune/destiny]

जिगर जौर-ए-गर्दुं से खुउं हो गया
मुझे रुकते रुकते जुनून हो गया
[ जौर-ए-गर्दुं = hardship of the world ]

मीर ताकी 'मीर'

Tuesday, 10 April 2012

yun hee besabab na phira karo..

( Bashir Badr reciting in Tarannum)

यूँ ही बेसब न फिरा करो, कोई शाम घर भी रहा करो
वो ग़ज़ल के सच्ची किताब है, उसे चुपके चुपके पढ़ा करो

कोई हाथ भी न मिलायेगा, जो गले मिलोगे तपाक से
ये नए मिजाज़ का शहर है ज़रा फासले से मिला करो

अभी राह में कई मोड़ हैं , कोई आएगा कोई जाएगा
तुम्हें जिसने दिल से भुला दिया उसे भूलने की दुआ करो

मुझे इश्तेहार से लगती हैं ये मुहबतों की कहानियां
जो कहा नहीं वो सुना करो, जो सुना नहीं वो कहा करो  

कभी हुस्न-ए-पर्दानशीं भी हो ज़रा आशिकाना लिबास में
जो मैं बन सवर के कहीं चलूँ, मेरे साथ तुम भे चला करो

ये खिजां की ज़र्द सी शाल  में , जो उदास पेड़ के पास है
ये तुम्हारे घर की बहार है, इसे आंसुओं से हरा करो

 नहीं बेहिजाब वो चाँद सा की नज़र का कोई असर न हो
उसे इतनी गर्मी-ए-शौक़ से बड़ी देर तक न तका करो

'बशीर बद्र'

yuu.N hii besabab na phiraa karo, ko_ii shaam ghar bhii rahaa karo
vo Gazal kii sachchii kitaab hai, use chupake chupake pa.Daa karo

ko_ii haath bhii na milaayegaa, jo gale miloge tapaak se
ye naye mizaaj kaa shahar hai, zaraa faasale se milaa karo

abhii raah me.n ka_ii mo.D hai.n, ko_ii aayegaa ko_ii jaayegaa
tumhe.n jisane dil se bhulaa diyaa use bhuulane kii duaa karo

mujhe ishtahaar sii lagatii hai.n, ye mohabbato.n kii kahaaniyaa.N
jo kahaa nahii.n vo sunaa karo, jo sunaa nahii.n vo kahaa karo

kabhii husn-e-pardaanashii.n bhii ho zaraa aashiqaanaa libaas me.n
jo mai.n ban-sa.Nvar ke kahii.n chaluu.N, mere saath tum bhii chalaa karo

ye Khizaa kii zard-sii shaal me.n, jo udaas pe.D ke paas hai
ye tumhaare ghar kii bahaar hai, ise aa.nsuo.n se haraa karo

nahii.n behijaab vo chaa.Nd saa ki nazar kaa ko_ii asar na ho
use itni garmi-e-shauq se ba.Dii der tak na takaa karo
'Bashir Badr'

Sunday, 8 April 2012

Na jaane kis gali mein zindagi ke shaam ho jaaye..

कभी तो आसमाँ से चांद उतरे जाम हो जाये
तुम्हारे नाम की इक ख़ूबसूरत शाम हो जाये

हमारा दिल सवेरे का सुनहरा जाम हो जाये
चराग़ों की तरह आँखें जलें जब शाम हो जाये

अजब हालात थे यूँ दिल का सौदा हो गया आख़िर
मोहब्बत की हवेली जिस तरह नीलाम हो जाये

समंदर के सफ़र में इस तरह आवाज़ दो हमको
हवाएँ तेज़ हों और कश्तियों में शाम हो जाये

मैं ख़ुद भी एहतियातन उस गली से कम गुज़रता हूँ
कोई मासूम क्यों मेरे लिये बदनाम हो जाये

मुझे मालूम है उस का ठिकाना फिर कहाँ होगा
परिंदा आसमाँ छूने में जब नाकाम हो जाये

उजाले अपनी यादों के हमारे साथ रहने दो
जाने किस गली में ज़िन्दगी की शाम हो जाये
'बशीर बद्र'

kabhi to aasman se chand utare jaam ho jaaye
tumhare naam ki ik khoobsurat shaam ho jaaye

hamara dil savere ka sunhara jaam ho jaaye
chargon kee tarah aankhein jale jab shaam ho jaaye

ajab haalat the yun dil ka sauda ho gaya aakhir
mohabbat ke haveli jis tarh neelam ho jaaye

samandar ke safar mein iss tarah aawaz do humko
hawayein tez ho aur kashtiyon mein shaam ho jaaye

main khud bhee aihtiyaatan us gali se kam guzarata hun
koi masoom kyun mere liye badnaam ho jaaye

mujhe maloom ai us ka thikaana phir kahan hoga
parinda aasmaan chunne mein jab naakam ho jaaye

ujaale apni yaadon ke hamare saath rahne do
na jaane kis gali mein zindagi kee shaam ho jaaye

Bashir Badr